Abstract: Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into set of components. Segmentation of blood vessel and optic disc is necessary for early detection of affected area in the retina. The eye is very unique part in human body where the vascular conditions are directly observed in vivo. The different approaches have been developed for blood vessel and optic disc detection; few of the approaches are discussed in this paper. The blood vessel identification is performed on the basis of blood vessel characteristics such as blood vessel's orientation, cross-sectional area, surface shapes, and abnormal regions volumes. The quantitative analysis of retinal images is of increasing importance in the diagnosis of the blood vessel abnormalities. An automated method for identification of optic disc has two methodologies location methodology and boundary segmentationmethodology

Keywords: Blood vessel, optic disc, segmentation, identification, detection, orientation.