Abstract: Providing reliable and efficient communication under fading channels is one of the major technical challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), especially in industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) with dynamic and harsh environments.The objective of this paper is to increase the resilience to link dynamics for WSNs/IWSNs. The design which introduced here, which inherits the advantages of opportunistic routing also, achieves shorter end-to-end delivery delay, higher energy efficiency, and reliability. Enhanced R3E is designed such that it will be set of reasons given in support of an idea for the existing reactive routing protocols to combat the channel variation by utilizing the local path diversity in the link layer. As a new addition to the cooperative forwarding design space in WSNs/IWSNs, our major contributions are route discovery and cooperative forwarding scheme. A biased back off scheme has introduced during the route-discovery phase to find a robust guide path, which can provide more cooperative forwarding opportunities. Along with this guided path, data packets are greedily progressed toward the destination through nodes’ cooperation without utilizing the location information. Thus Enhanced R3E remarkably increases the packet delivery ratio, while maintaining high energy efficiency and low delivery latency. In this paper, we compare the R3E protocol with the existing protocol through NS2 simulation.

Keywords: Industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), opportunistic routing, reliable forwarding, unreliable wireless links.