Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (Wans) have become predominant in both industrial applications as well as personal use. With the advent of Internet of Things (IoT) there has been a re-emphasis on research, development and application of WSNs. WSN nodes are characterized by low processing power, limited lifetime, and lack of mobility. So the major challenge is to design a high quality WSN irrespective of these constraints. In this paper we have presented an in depth analysis of one of these constraints i.e., limited power availability in WSNs. We have presented a review of major techniques to conserve power in WSNs. Especial focus is given on AI based power optimization techniques including clustering, fuzzy logic, nueral network based techniques etc.

Keywords: WSN, sensors, wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, power optimization.