Abstract: Vehicular ad hoc networks has focused mainly on efficient routing protocol design under conditions where there are relatively large numbers of closely spaced vehicles. A Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) may exhibit a bipolar behaviour, i.e., the network can either be fully connected or sparsely connected depending on the time of day. In sparse vehicular network there are lot of chances to drop the data packets. So there is necessary to avoid the discontinuity in sending the packets during the sparse vehicular network and depending on the scarcity of vehicles or the market penetration rate of cars using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) technology. For vehicular safety applications, an ad-hoc routing protocol will be needed like Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV). It is a challenge to use efficient routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) because of their highly dynamic properties an application of opportunistic routing, using a carry-and-forward scheme to solve the forwarding disconnection problem in sparse VANETs.

Keywords: Database Routing, vehicular ad hoc Networks, broadcasting, vehicle traffic modelling.