Abstract: A processor is responsible for several thousand calculations that are required to run a system and this capability, efficiency of a processor to do so is based on its type of architecture, the sole purpose of which is to find a balance between the applications that run on the system and the maximum performance attainable in implementing such an architecture. Additionally there are physical limitations to processor architecture which include how many transistors can be placed on a chip or the number of interconnection one can make on the chip and how much heat a chip can dissipate. All these factors contribute towards the computing capabilities of the processor, In regard to which this paper undertakes a critical review of the current challenges and growth in processor technology and design decisions for future implementation. This paper also compares the various architecture alternatives to traditional processor in form of multi core architecture and parallel processing (as an implementation in processing) and the viability of using GPUs as an alternative to CPU processing.

Keywords: Processor, Multicore Architecture, Parallel processing, CPU, GPU.